Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- WHO Dengue Case Classification 2009 and its usefulness in practice: an expert consensus in the Americas.
Horstick O, Martinez E, Guzman MG, et al. WHO Dengue Case Classification 2009 and its usefulness in practice: an expert consensus in the Americas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Pathog Glob Health 2015 Jan 28.:2047773215Y0000000003.Introduction: In 2009, the new World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification - dengue/severe dengue (D/SD) - was introduced, replacing the 1997 WHO dengue case classification: dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS). Methods: A 2-day expert consensus meeting in La Habana/Cuba aimed to (1) share the experiences from Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) member states when applying D/SD, (2) present national and local data using D/SD, and (3) agree with the presented evidence on a list of recommendations for or against the use of D/SD for PAHO, and also globally. Results: Eight key questions were discussed, concluding: (1) D/SD is useful describing disease progression because it considers the dynamic nature of the disease, (2) D/SD helps defining dengue cases correctly for clinical studies, because it defines more precisely disease severity and allows evaluating dynamically the progression of cases, (3) D/SD describes correctly all clinical forms of severe dengue. Further standards need to be developed regionally, especially related to severe organ involvement, (4) D/SD allows for pathophysiological research identifying - in a sequential manner - the clinical manifestations of dengue related to pathophysiological events, (5) the warning signs help identifying early cases at risk of shock (children and adults), pathophysiology of the warning signs deserves further studies, (6) D/SD helps treating individual dengue cases and also the reorganization of health-care services for outbreak management, (7) D/SD helps diagnosing dengue, in presumptive diagnosis and follow-up of the disease, because of its high sensitivity and high negative predictive value (NPV), and (8) there is currently no update of the International Disease Classification10 (ICD10) to include the new classification of dengue (D/SD); therefore, there are not enough experiences of epidemiological reporting. Once D/SD has been implemented in epidemiological surveillance, D/SD allows to (1) identify severity of dengue cases in real time, for any decision-making on actions, (2) measure and compare morbidity and mortality in countries, and also globally, and (3) trigger contingency plans early, not only based on the number of reported cases but also on the reported severity of cases. Conclusion: The expert panel recommends to (1) update ICD10, (2) include D/SD in country epidemiological reports, and (3) implement studies improving sensitivity/specificity of the dengue case definition.
- Dengue Virus Control of Type I IFN Responses: A History of Manipulation and Control.
Castillo Ramirez JA, Urcuqui-Inchima S Dengue Virus Control of Type I IFN Responses: A History of Manipulation and Control. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Interferon Cytokine Res 2015 Jan 28.The arthropod-borne diseases caused by dengue virus (DENV) are a major and emerging problem of public health worldwide. Infection with DENV causes a series of clinical manifestations ranging from mild flu syndrome to severe diseases that include hemorrhage and shock. It has been demonstrated that the innate immune response plays a key role in DENV pathogenesis. However, in recent years, it was shown that DENV evades the innate immune response by blocking type I interferon (IFN-I). It has been demonstrated that DENV can inhibit both the production and the signaling of IFN-I. The viral proteins, NS2A and NS3, inhibit IFN-I production by degrading cellular signaling molecules. In addition, the viral proteins, NS2A, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5, can inhibit IFN-I signaling by blocking the phosphorylation of the STAT1 and STAT2 molecules. Finally, NS5 mediates the degradation of STAT2 using the proteasome machinery. In this study, we briefly review the most recent insights regarding the IFN-I response to DENV infection and its implication for pathogenesis.
- [Challenges and inputs of the gender perspective to the study of vector borne diseases].
Arenas-Monreal L, Piña-Pozas M, Gómez-Dantés H [Challenges and inputs of the gender perspective to the study of vector borne diseases]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Salud Publica Mex 2015 Feb; 57(1):66-75.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe analysis of social determinants and gender within the health-disease-care process is an imperative to understand the variables that define the vulnerability of populations, their exposure risks, the determinants of their care, and the organization and participation in prevention and control programs. Ecohealth incorporates the study of the social determinants and gender perspectives because the emergency of dengue, malaria and Chagas disease are bound to unplanned urbanization, deficient sanitary infrastructure, and poor housing conditions. Gender emerges as an explanatory element of the roles played by men and women in the different scenarios (domestic, communitarian and social) that shape exposure risks to vectors and offer a better perspective of success for the prevention, control and care strategies. The objective is to contribute to the understanding on the gender perspective in the analysis of health risks through a conceptual framework.
- Sexual harassment and feeding inhibition between two invasive dengue vectors.
Soghigian J, Gibbs K, Stanton A, et al. Sexual harassment and feeding inhibition between two invasive dengue vectors. [Journal Article]Environ Health Insights 2014; 8(Suppl 2):61-6.Two invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been interacting during the course of a rapid range expansion by A. albopictus. We investigated the potential for interspecific feeding interference by male mosquitoes interacting with females within and between these species. A. aegypti feeding on both sugar and blood was suppressed when females of this species were exposed to A. albopictus males, but no change was observed when exposed to conspecifics. A. albopictus feeding was not affected by males of either species. The potential consequences of these behaviors are discussed within the context of other known interspecific effects, all of which appear to favor the displacement of A. aegypti by A. albopictus.
- [Rhabdomyolysis associated with dengue fever in a lupic patient].
Verdolin LD, Borner AR, Mussi H, et al. [Rhabdomyolysis associated with dengue fever in a lupic patient]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Rev Bras Reumatol 2014 Jul-Aug; 54(4):318-21.This report describes the case of a woman with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) that developed rhabdomyolysis after being infected by dengue virus. There are only a few cases of SLE accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, none of them associated with dengue fever. Initially, the woman presented high fever, myalgia, muscular weakness, mild headache, polyarthralgia and thrombocytopenia reminding a lupus flare, but since the number of people infected by dengue at that time was high and the symptoms from both conditions are similar, a dengue serology was requested. After a few days, the patient developed rhabdomyolysis. She was then submitted to immunosuppressive drugs, urinary alkalization and vigorous hydration, which improved her muscle damage and inflammatory condition. The positive dengue serology was only available after the therapy above had been established. She was discharged in an asymptomatic state. This case demonstrates how alike dengue fever and a lupus flare are, warning clinicians that, especially during an epidemic, both diseases should be carefully differentiated in order to establish a correct and efficient therapy.
- Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.
Santos SL, Parra-Henao G, Silva MB, et al. Dengue in Brazil and Colombia: a study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices. [Journal Article]Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 Dec; 47(6):783-7.AbstractPublisher Full TextIntroduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
- Ecoepidemiology and biology of Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon.
Monte GL, Tadei WP, Farias TM Ecoepidemiology and biology of Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon. [Journal Article]Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 Dec; 47(6):723-7.AbstractPublisher Full TextIntroduction Eratyrus mucronatus Stål, 1859 is a wild triatomine vector of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909. However, little is known regarding the biology and ecoepidemiology of this triatomine in the Brazilian Amazon. The present study describes the biology of E. mucronatus grown under laboratory conditions and the epidemiological aspects of its natural breeding sites. Methods Five colonies were monitored in the field for 3 years. Temperature and humidity measurements were taken in the mornings and afternoons at the natural breeding sites, and the behavior and distribution of the nymphs and adults were observed in the wild colony. We also monitored the life cycle under controlled laboratory conditions. Results Some factors that were considered decisive for the establishment of these colonies were present at all of the colonies studied in the field. These factors included an active termite nest, a vertebrate for repast, and dry and shaded substrates with temperatures of 24-28°C and with humidity of 80-90%. A generation was developed in 274 days under these microclimatic conditions in the laboratory. Conclusions The climatic variables described in the field indicate that these environmental parameters have a limiting effect on the dispersal and colonization of E. mucronatus to new environments. In addition, the long period of development to adulthood demonstrates that only one generation can develop per year even under the more favorable laboratory conditions.
- Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study.
Gibson G, Souza-Santos R, Pedro AS, et al. Occurrence of severe dengue in Rio de Janeiro: an ecological study. [Journal Article]Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2014 Dec; 47(6):684-91.AbstractPublisher Full TextIntroduction This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the incidence of severe dengue during the 2008 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and socioeconomic indicators, as well as indicators of health service availability and previous circulation of the dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3). Methods In this ecological study, the units of analysis were the districts of Rio de Janeiro. The data were incorporated into generalized linear models, and the incidence of severe dengue in each district was the outcome variable. Results The districts with more cases of dengue fever in the 2001 epidemic and a higher percentage of residents who declared their skin color or race as black had higher incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic [incidence rate ratio (IRR)= 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95%CI)= 1.05-1.40 and IRR= 1.34; 95%CI= 1.16-1.54, respectively]. In contrast, the districts with Family Health Strategy (FHS) clinics were more likely to have lower incidence rates of severe dengue in the 2008 epidemic (IRR= 0.81; 95%CI= 0.70-0.93). Conclusions At the ecological level, our findings suggest the persistence of health inequalities in this region of Brazil that are possibly due to greater social vulnerability among the self-declared black population. Additionally, the protective effect of FHS clinics may be due to the ease of access to other levels of care in the health system or to a reduced vulnerability to dengue transmission that is afforded by local practices to promote health.
- Microfluidic Toner-Based Analytical Devices: Disposable, Lightweight, and Portable Platforms for Point-of-Care Diagnostics with Colorimetric Detection.
Oliveira KA, de Souza FR, de Oliveira CR, et al. Microfluidic Toner-Based Analytical Devices: Disposable, Lightweight, and Portable Platforms for Point-of-Care Diagnostics with Colorimetric Detection. [Journal Article]Methods Mol Biol 2015.:85-98.AbstractPublisher Full TextThis chapter describes the development of microfluidic toner-based analytical devices (μTADs) to perform clinical diagnostics using a scanner or cell-phone camera. μTADs have been produced in a platform composed of polyester and toner by the direct-printing technology (DPT) in a matter of minutes. This technology offers simplicity and versatility, and it does not require any sophisticated instrumentation. Toner-based devices integrate the current generation of disposable analytical devices along paper-based chips. The cost of one μTAD has been estimated to be lower than $0.10. In addition, these platforms are lightweight and portable thus enabling their use for point-of-care applications. In the last 5 years, great efforts have been dedicated to spread out the use of μTADs in bioassays. The current chapter reports the fabrication of printed microplates and integrated microfluidic toner-based devices for dengue diagnostics and rapid colorimetric assays with clinically relevant analytes including cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, and glucose. The use of μTADs associated with cell-phone camera may contribute to the health care, in special, to people housed in developing regions or with limited access to clinics and hospitals.
- Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified "Sterile" Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA.
Ernst KC, Haenchen S, Dickinson K, et al. Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified "Sterile" Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Emerg Infect Dis 2015 Feb; 21(2):320-324.After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009-2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement.