Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- The rising importance of Triatoma rubrofasciata.
Dujardin JP, Lam TX, Khoa PT, et al. The rising importance of Triatoma rubrofasciata. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2015 Mar 24.:0.The migration of invasive vector species has contributed to the worldwide extension of infectious diseases such as dengue (Aedes aegypti) and chikungunya (Aedes albopictus). It is probably a similar behaviour for certain vectors of Chagas disease which allowed it to become a continental burden in Latin America. One of them, Triatoma rubrofasciata has also been spreading throughout the tropical and subtropical world. Here, the recent and massive peridomestic presence of T. rubrofasciata in Vietnam cities is reported, and tentatively explained, highlighting the need for improved entomological surveillance.
- The Application of Biomedical Engineering Techniques to the Diagnosis and Management of Tropical Diseases: A Review.
Ibrahim F, Thio TH, Faisal T, et al. The Application of Biomedical Engineering Techniques to the Diagnosis and Management of Tropical Diseases: A Review. [REVIEW]Sensors (Basel) 2015; 15(3):6947-6995.This paper reviews a number of biomedical engineering approaches to help aid in the detection and treatment of tropical diseases such as dengue, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, ebola, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas). Many different forms of non-invasive approaches such as ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography, bioelectrical impedance, optical detection, simplified and rapid serological tests such as lab-on-chip and micro-/nano-fluidic platforms and medical support systems such as artificial intelligence clinical support systems are discussed. The paper also reviewed the novel clinical diagnosis and management systems using artificial intelligence and bioelectrical impedance techniques for dengue clinical applications.
- Secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever.
Premaratna R, Dissanayake D, Silva FH, et al. Secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever. [Journal Article]Ceylon Med J 2015 Mar; 60(1):10-2.Although dengue management guidelines do not advice on use of antibiotics in dengue shock syndrome, unrecognised bactraemia is likely to contribute to morbidity and mortality.To assess the occurance of secondary bacteraemia in adult patients with prolonged dengue fever.A prospective study was conducted recruiting patients with confirmed acute dengue infection who had prolonged fever (>5 days). Two sets of blood cultures were taken in such patients prior to institution of antibiotic therapy. Demographic, clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. Development of ascites and pleural effusions were detected using ultrasonography.Fourty patients (52.5% males) with a mean age of 29.8 years (SD 13.6) were studied. The average duration of fever was 7.9 days (SD 1.8). Ten patients (25%) had bacterial isolates in their blood cultures; Staphylococcus aureus (n=2), coliforms (n=3), pseudomonas (n=1) and 4 had mixed growths. The culture positive group had severe body aches at admission and higher fever, third space fluid accumulation, a significant drop in platelets and a higher CRP.A quarter of dengue patients with prolonged fever had a bacterial isolate. Culture positive patients appeared more ill with body aches and had higher degrees of fever during the latter part of the illness. Increased vascular permeability may predispose to bacterial seepage into blood. Although white cell count is not helpful in detecting bacteraemia, low platelet count and elevation of CRP seem to be helpful.
- An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.
Medlock JM, Hansford KM, Versteirt V, et al. An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Bull Entomol Res 2015 Mar 25.:1-27.AbstractPublisher Full TextAmong the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.
- Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of a New Dengue IgA Capture Assay (Platelia Dengue IgA Capture, Bio-Rad) for Dengue Infection Detection.
De Decker S, Vray M, Sistek V, et al. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of a New Dengue IgA Capture Assay (Platelia Dengue IgA Capture, Bio-Rad) for Dengue Infection Detection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Mar; 9(3):e0003596.Considering the short lifetime of IgA antibodies in serum and the key advantages of antibody detection ELISAs in terms of sensitivity and specificity, Bio-Rad has just developed a new ELISA test based on the detection of specific anti-dengue IgA. This study has been carried out to assess the performance of this Platelia Dengue IgA Capture assay for dengue infection detection. A total of 184 well-characterized samples provided by the French Guiana NRC sera collection (Laboratory of Virology, Institut Pasteur in French Guiana) were selected among samples collected between 2002 and 2013 from patients exhibiting a dengue-like syndrome. A first group included 134 sera from confirmed dengue-infected patients, and a second included 50 sera from non-dengue infected patients, all collected between day 3 and day 15 after the onset of fever. Dengue infection diagnoses were all confirmed using reference assays by direct virological identification using RT-PCR or virus culture on acute sera samples or on paired acute-phase sera samples of selected convalescent sera. This study revealed: i) a good overall sensitivity and specificity of the IgA index test, i.e., 93% and 88% respectively, indicating its good correlation to acute dengue diagnosis; and ii) a good concordance with the Panbio IgM capture ELISA. Because of the shorter persistence of dengue virus-specific IgA than IgM, these results underlined the relevance of this new test, which could significantly improve dengue diagnosis accuracy, especially in countries where dengue virus is (hyper-) endemic. It would allow for additional refinement of dengue diagnostic strategy.
- Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production.
Soares JB, Gaviraghi A, Oliveira MF Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS One 2015; 10(3):e0120600.Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity.
- Myocarditis leading to severe dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with dengue Fever.
Tahir H, Daruwalla V, Hayat S Myocarditis leading to severe dilated cardiomyopathy in a patient with dengue Fever. [Journal Article]Case Rep Cardiol 2015.:319312.Background. Majority of dengue fever cases follow a benign self-limiting course but recently rare presentations and complications are increasingly seen due to rising burden of disease. Cardiac involvement in dengue fever with fatal outcome is a very rare complication. We report a case of 44-year-old patient who presented with symptoms of severe acute congestive heart secondary to myocarditis induced cardiomyopathy caused by dengue virus infection. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old man presented to ER with the complaints of high fever, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Patient was lethargic and blood pressure was low when he was brought to the ER. CXR showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary congestion and echocardiography revealed dilated left ventricle and ejection fraction of 10%. Patient condition worsened and he got admitted to the ICU because of acute hypoxic respiratory failure. Despite aggressive measures, patient died on day 5. Conclusion. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare complication of dengue myocarditis. Early recognition of acute DCM caused by dengue myocarditis is imperative in the management of dengue fever as early detection and management of cardiac failure can improve the survival of patient.
- The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.
Liebman K, Swamidoss I, Vizcaino L, et al. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Mar 23.Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.
- [Disseminated histoplamosis in adolescent mimicking granulomatosis with polyangiitis].
van Weelden M, Viola GR, Kozu KT, et al. [Disseminated histoplamosis in adolescent mimicking granulomatosis with polyangiitis]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE, ENGLISH ABSTRACT]Rev Bras Reumatol 2015 Mar 4.Systemic histoplasmosis is an invasive fungal infection that may mimic primary vasculitis, particularly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and was rarely described in adult patients. We reported an immunocompetent patient with disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking GPA who fulfilled European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO)/Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PRES) validated classification criteria.A 6-year old boy presented acute migratory polyarthritis with spontaneous improvement, sinus inflammation, fever, headache and abdominal pain. Serologic test for hepatitis, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, toxoplasmosis, dengue virus and antistreptolysin O were all negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed moderate ascites in pelvis and pansinusitis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) were positive. He had spontaneous remission of the symptoms including fever. At the age of 11 years and 11 months, he had sinusitis, pneumonia and epididymitis. A month later, he was hospitalized and MRI showed left eye proptosis. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal and indirect tests of fungi were negative. Two months later, he had lumbar pain and computer tomography showed a mass in the right kidney and pulmonary nodule in the right lung. He fulfilled EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for GPA, however the renal biopsy showed a focal granulomatous interstitial nephritis with yeast fungal cells compatible with Histoplasma sp. He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole with improvement of signs and symptoms.We reported a progressive disseminated histoplasmosis case mimicking GPA. Histoplasmosis infection should be considered in immunocompetent subjects with uncommon clinical manifestations, such as arthritis, nephritis and epididymitis.
- Robust and Balanced Immune Responses to All 4 Dengue Virus Serotypes Following Administration of a Single Dose of a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine to Healthy, Flavivirus-Naive Adults.
Kirkpatrick BD, Durbin AP, Pierce KK, et al. Robust and Balanced Immune Responses to All 4 Dengue Virus Serotypes Following Administration of a Single Dose of a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine to Healthy, Flavivirus-Naive Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Infect Dis 2015 Mar 22. The 4 serotypes of dengue virus, DENV-1-4, are the leading cause of arboviral disease globally. The ideal dengue vaccine would provide protection against all serotypes after a single dose. Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials were performed with 168 flavivirus-naive adults to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine (TV003), compared with those of a second tetravalent vaccine with an enhanced DENV-2 component (TV005), and to evaluate the benefit of a booster dose at 6 months. Safety data, viremia, and neutralizing antibody titers were evaluated. A single dose of TV005 elicited a tetravalent response in 90% of vaccinees by 3 months after vaccination and a trivalent response in 98%. Compared with TV003, the higher-dose DENV-2 component increased the observed frequency of immunogenicity to DENV-2 in the TV005 trial. Both the first and second doses were well tolerated. Neither vaccine viremia, rash, nor a significant antibody boost were observed following a second dose. A single subcutaneous dose of TV005 dengue vaccine is safe and induces a tetravalent antibody response at an unprecedented frequency among vaccinees. A second dose has limited benefit and appears to be unnecessary. Studies to confirm these findings and assess vaccine efficacy will now move to populations in regions where DENV transmission is endemic. NCT01072786 and NCT01436422.