Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations.
Dengue Outbreak in Mombasa City, Kenya, 2013-2014: Entomologic Investigations. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct; 10(10):e0004981.PNLutomiah J, Barrera R, Makio A, et al. Dengue outbreaks were first reported in East Africa in the late 1970s to early 1980s including the 1982 outbreak on the Kenyan coast. In 2011, dengue outbreaks occurred in Mandera in northern Kenya and...Publisher Full TextDengue outbreaks were first reported in East Africa in the late 1970s to early 1980s including the 1982 outbreak on the Kenyan coast. In 2011, dengue outbreaks occurred in Mandera in northern Kenya and subsequently in Mombasa city along the Kenyan coast in 2013-2014. Following laboratory confirmation of dengue fever cases, an entomologic investigation was conducted to establish the mosquito species, and densities, causing the outbreak. Affected parts of the city were identified with the help of public health officials. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using various tools, processed and screened for dengue virus (DENV) by cell culture and RT-PCR. All containers in every accessible house and compound within affected suburbs were inspected for immatures. A total of 2,065 Ae. aegypti adults were collected and 192 houses and 1,676 containers inspected. An overall house index of 22%, container index, 31.0% (indoor = 19; outdoor = 43) and Breteau index, 270.1, were observed, suggesting that the risk of dengue transmission was high. Overall, jerry cans were the most productive containers (18%), followed by drums (17%), buckets (16%), tires (14%) and tanks (10%). However, each site had specific most-productive container-types such as tanks (17%) in Kizingo; Drums in Nyali (30%) and Changamwe (33%), plastic basins (35%) in Nyali-B and plastic buckets (81%) in Ganjoni. We recommend that for effective control of the dengue vector in Mombasa city, all container types would be targeted. Measures would include proper covering of water storage containers and eliminating discarded containers outdoors through a public participatory environmental clean-up exercise. Providing reliable piped water to all households would minimize the need for water storage and reduce aquatic habitats. Isolation of DENV from male Ae. aegypti mosquitoes is a first observation in Kenya and provides further evidence that transovarial transmission may have a role in DENV circulation and/or maintenance in the environment.
- Transmission dynamics of two dengue serotypes with vaccination scenarios.
Transmission dynamics of two dengue serotypes with vaccination scenarios. [Journal Article]Math Biosci 2016 Oct 20.MBGonzález Morales NL, Núñez-López M, Ramos-Castañeda J, et al. In this work we present a mathematical model that incorporates two Dengue serotypes. The model has been constructed to study both the epidemiological trends of the disease and conditions that allow coe...Publisher Full TextIn this work we present a mathematical model that incorporates two Dengue serotypes. The model has been constructed to study both the epidemiological trends of the disease and conditions that allow coexistence in competing strains under vaccination. We consider two viral strains and temporary cross-immunity with one vector mosquito population. Results suggest that vaccination scenarios will not only reduce disease incidence but will also modify the transmission dynamics. Indeed, vaccination and cross immunity period are seen to decrease the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks but in a differentiated manner with specific effects depending upon the interaction vaccine and strain type.
- Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city.
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city. [Journal Article]Acta Trop 2016 Oct 19.:431-437.ATBezerra JM, Araújo RG, Melo FF, et al. Brazil reported the majority of the dengue cases in Americas during the last two decades, where the occurrence of human dengue cases is exclusively attributed to the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus...Publisher Full TextBrazil reported the majority of the dengue cases in Americas during the last two decades, where the occurrence of human dengue cases is exclusively attributed to the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus). Nowadays, other recognized Dengue virus (DENV) vector in Asian countries, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), has been detected in more than half of the 5565 Brazilian municipalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of, and determine the Ae. albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a dengue-endemic risk city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State's capital. Aedes albopictus were collected across four consecutive DENV transmission seasons from 2010 to 2014. These mosquitoes were caught in three selected districts, which had been reported in the previous ten years as having high mosquito densities and an elevated concentration of human dengue cases during epidemic seasons. All field-caught Ae. albopictus was individually processed by real-time RT-PCR, to research the DENV presence. The third season (p<0.05) and the Pampulha district (p<0.05) had the highest proportions of field-caught Ae. albopictus, respectively. The second season had the highest proportion of DENV-infected field-caught females (p<0.05), but there was no difference among the proportions of DENV-infected Ae. albopictus when comparing the collection in the three districts (p=0.98). Minimum (p=0.004) and maximum (p<0.0001) temperature were correlated with the field-caught Ae. albopictus in four different periods and districts. In the generalized linear model of Poisson, the field-caught DENV-infected Ae. albopictus (p=0.005), East district (p=0.003), minimum temperature (p<0.0001) and relative humidity (p=0.001) remained associated with the total number of human dengue cases. Our study demonstrated that the number of field-caught DENV-infected Ae. albopictus was inversed correlated with the number of human dengue cases. Our study raises the possibility that the DENV circulating in mosquitoes Ae. albopictus is happening in non-epidemic periods, showing that this species may be keeping only the presence of the virus in nature. Further long-term studies are necessary to better understand the role of Ae. albopictus in DENV transmission and or its vectorial competence in Belo Horizonte and in other endemic cities in Brazil and in the New World countries.
- Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region.
Behavioral patterns, parity rate and natural infection analysis in anopheline species involved in the transmission of malaria in the northeastern Brazilian Amazon region. [Journal Article]Acta Trop 2016 Sep 19.:216-225.ATBarbosa LM, Souto RN, Dos Anjos Ferreira RM, et al. The characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavi...Publisher Full TextThe characterization of behavioral patterns allows a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and the design of more effective malaria vector control strategies. This study analyzed the behavioral patterns of the Anopheles species of the Coração district situated in the northeast of the Brazilian Amazon region. The behavioral patterns of the anopheline species were measured based on the 36 collection sites of this district from December 2010 to November 2011. Collections of four hours for three consecutive nights each month and four 12-h collections, comprising two in the rainy season and two in the dry season, were performed. Furthermore, to infer the anthropophily and zoophily indexes, four additional four-hour collections were performed. The samples were also evaluated for parity rate and natural infectivity for Plasmodium spp. A total of 1689 anophelines were captured, comprising of nine species and two subgenera (Nyssorhynchus - six species, and Anopheles - three species). Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant and widely distributed species in the area, followed by A. braziliensis and A.marajoara. Anopheles darlingi and A. marajoara were the only species present in the four collections of 12-h, but only A. darlingi showed activity throughout night. Anopheles darlingi was the most anthropophilic species (AI=0.40), but the zoophily index was higher (ZI=0.60), revealing an eclectic and opportunistic behavior. Of the six most frequent species, A. nuneztovari s.l. was the most zoophilic species (ZI=1.00). All captured species showed predominance towards biting in outdoor environments. Anopheles darlingi and A. braziliensis showed multimodal biting peaks, whereas A. marajoara revealed a stable pattern, with the biting peak after sunset. Using the PCR technique, no anopheline was found infected with the malaria parasite. Since A. darlingi and A. marajoara are recognized as important vectors in this region, the district of Coração may be considered as a highly potent area for transmission of malaria, therefore, the prevention and surveillance measures should be taken constantly to prevent the same. The role of A. braziliensis as malaria vector needs to be urgently investigated.
- Erratum: Structural basis of potent Zika-dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization.
Erratum: Structural basis of potent Zika-dengue virus antibody cross-neutralization. [Journal Article]Nature 2016 Sep 14.NatBarba-Spaeth G, Dejnirattisai W, Rouvinski A, et al. Publisher Full Text
- A spatial model of socioeconomic and environmental determinants of dengue fever in Cali, Colombia.
A spatial model of socioeconomic and environmental determinants of dengue fever in Cali, Colombia. [Journal Article]Acta Trop 2016 Sep 9.:169-176.ATDelmelle E, Hagenlocher M, Kienberger S, et al. Dengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in e...Publisher Full TextDengue fever has gradually re-emerged across the global South, particularly affecting urban areas of the tropics and sub-tropics. The dynamics of dengue fever transmission are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, as well as local demographic and socioeconomic factors. In 2010, the municipality of Cali, Colombia, experienced one of its worst outbreaks, however the outbreak was not spatially homogeneous across the city. In this paper, we evaluate the role of socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with this outbreak at the neighborhood level, using a Geographically Weighted Regression model. Key socioeconomic factors include population density and socioeconomic stratum, whereas environmental factors are proximity to both tire shops and plant nurseries and the presence of a sewage system (R(2)=0.64). The strength of the association between these factors and the incidence of dengue fever is spatially heterogeneous at the neighborhood level. The findings provide evidence to support public health strategies in allocating resources locally, which will enable a better detection of high risk areas, a reduction of the risk of infection and to strengthen the resilience of the population.
- Dengue virus surveillance: Detection of DENV-4 in the city of São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil.
Dengue virus surveillance: Detection of DENV-4 in the city of São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. [Journal Article]Acta Trop 2016 Sep 5.:84-89.ATColombo TE, Vedovello D, Pacca-Mazaro CC, et al. Dengue viruses are the most common arbovirus infection worldwide and are caused by four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV). In the present study, we assessed DENV transmission in São José do...Publisher Full TextDengue viruses are the most common arbovirus infection worldwide and are caused by four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV). In the present study, we assessed DENV transmission in São José do Rio Preto (SJRP) from 2010 to 2014. We analyzed blood samples from febrile patients who were attended at health care centers in SJRP. DENV detection was performed using multiplex RT-PCR, using flavivirus generic primers, based on the genes of the non-structural protein (NS5), followed by nested-PCR assay with species-specific primers. We analyzed 1549 samples, of which 1389 were positive for NS1 by rapid test. One thousand and eight-seven samples (78%) were confirmed as positive by multiplex RT-PCR: DENV-4, 48.5% (528/1087); DENV-1, 41.5% (449/1087); DENV-2, 9.5% (104/1087); and co-infection (5 DENV-1/DENV-4, 1 DENV-1/DENV-2), 0.5% (6/1087). Phylogenetic analysis of the DENV-4 grouped the isolates identified in this study with the American genotype and the showed a relationship between isolates from SJRP and isolates from the northern region of South America. Taken together, our data shows the detection and emergence of new dengue genotype in a new region and reiterate the importance of surveillance programs to detect and trace the evolution of DENV.
- Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico.
Non-human primate antibody response to mosquito salivary proteins: Implications for dengue virus transmission in Puerto Rico. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Acta Trop 2016 Sep 2.:369-374.ATHemme RR, Poole-Smith BK, Hunsperger EA, et al. An important step to incriminate a mosquito as a vector of a disease pathogen is finding evidence of direct contact between the mosquito and humans. Typically, this is accomplished through landing/biti...Publisher Full TextAn important step to incriminate a mosquito as a vector of a disease pathogen is finding evidence of direct contact between the mosquito and humans. Typically, this is accomplished through landing/biting catches, or host blood meal analysis in engorged mosquitoes via immunologic assays. An alternate approach is to identify the presence of specific mosquito anti-saliva protein antibodies in the blood of exposed hosts. Following the discovery of dengue infected, free roaming non-human primates in Puerto Rico, we investigated which mosquito species had bitten these primates using a serologic assay. Serum samples from 20 patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used to evaluate mosquito bite exposure to Aedes aegypti, Aedes mediovittatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Of 22 non-human primates examined 20 (90%), 17 (77%), 13 (59%), and 7 (31%) were positive for exposure to Ae. mediovittatus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Our findings indicated that free-roaming primates in Puerto Rico were exposed to the bites of one proven dengue vector, Ae. aegypti and one potential dengue vector, Ae. mediovittatus.
- Factors Associated with the Time of Admission among Notified Dengue Fever Cases in Region VIII Philippines from 2008 to 2014.
Factors Associated with the Time of Admission among Notified Dengue Fever Cases in Region VIII Philippines from 2008 to 2014. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Oct; 10(10):e0005050.PNAbello JE, Gil Cuesta J, Cerro BR, et al. In cases of Dengue fever, late hospital admission can lead to treatment delay and even death. In order to improve early disease notification and management, it is essential to investigate the factors a...Publisher Full TextIn cases of Dengue fever, late hospital admission can lead to treatment delay and even death. In order to improve early disease notification and management, it is essential to investigate the factors affecting the time of admission of Dengue cases. This study determined the factors associated with the time of admission among notified Dengue cases. The study covered the period between 2008 and 2014 in Region VIII, Philippines. The factors assessed were age, sex, hospital sector, hospital level, disease severity based on the 1997 WHO Dengue classification, and period of admission (distinguishing between the 2010 Dengue epidemic and non-epidemic time). We analysed secondary data from the surveillance of notified Dengue cases. We calculated the association through chi-square test, ordinal logistic regression and linear regression at p value < 0.05. The study included 16,357 admitted Dengue cases. The reported cases included a majority of children (70.09%), mild cases of the disease (64.00%), patients from the public sector (69.82%), and non-tertiary hospitals (62.76%). Only 1.40% of cases had a laboratory confirmation. The epidemic period in 2010 comprised 48.68% of all the admitted cases during this period. Late admission was more likely among adults than children (p<0.05). The severe type of the disease was more likely to be admitted late than the mild type (p<0.05). Late admission was also more likely in public hospitals than in private hospitals (p<0.05); and within tertiary level hospitals than non-tertiary hospitals (p<0.05). Late admission was more likely during the non-epidemic period than the 2010 epidemic period (p<0.05). A case fatality rate of 1 or greater was significantly associated with children, severe diseases, tertiary hospitals and public hospitals when admitted late (p<0.05). Data suggests that early admission among child cases was common in Region VIII. This behavior is encouraging, and should be continued. However, further study is needed on the late admission among tertiary, public hospitals and non-epidemic period with reference to the quality of care, patient volume, out of pocket expense, and accessibility We recommend the consistent use of the 2009 WHO Dengue guidelines in order to standardize the admission criteria and time across hospitals.
- Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014
Infectious diseases in Poland in 2014 [journal article]Przegl Epidemiol 2016; 70(2):167-181.PESadkowska-Todys MA, Zieliński A, Czarkowski MS The aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring ...treatment guidelinesThe aim of the study is to assess epidemiological situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2014, and an indication of the potential health risks from communicable diseases occurring in other areas of the globe.This paper is a summary of the analysis and evaluation of the results of epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2014, and those elements of European and global epidemiological background, which in this period had an impact on the epidemiological situation in Poland or constituted a threat. The main source of data for this study are statistical reports included in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014” and “Immunizations in Poland in 2014” (NIPH-PZH, GIS, Warsaw 2015) and the data contained in the articles of „Epidemiological chronicle” presented in the Data on deaths are based on the statement of the Department for Demographic Research and Labour Market CSO presenting numbers of deaths from infectious and parasitic diseases registered in Poland in 2014, and in the previous years.Upper respiratory tract infection classified as “suspected flu and the flu season” in the since many years are the largest position among the diseases subject to disease surveillance. In the last decade, particularly large increase in the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection was reported in the flu season 2013., when the increase in comparison to the median of years 2008-2012 amounted to 189.8%. In 2014. Number of reported cases was 3 137 056 which represented a nonsignificant decrease of 0.8% compared with the previous year. However, compared to the median of the years 2008-2012 it was an increase of 187.4%. Better then based on calendar year is a picture obtained by examining the incidence of seasonal periods in the annual, but counted from 1 September to 31 August of the following year. In such a setup, in the 2012/2013 season were recorded 3 025 258 of cases, and in the season 2013/2014 recorded number was 2 780 945. In such a way in the 2013/2014 season decrease in the number of cases as compared to the season 2012/2013 was 8%. Another group of infections with a high incidence are intestinal ones. In 2014. Incidence of intestinal infections with Salmonella etiology increased in comparison with the previous year by 10.8%, but in relation to the median of 2008-2012 was lower by 7.3%. Incidence of an important group of intestinal infections, which are diarrhea cases in children under 2 years, increased in 2014. in the category of infections of viral etiology and a decreased among bacterial ones. In 2014. upward trend of intestinal infections caused by viruses persited. Among these infections dominated rotavirus infections in children. Number of reported foodborne infections of viral etiology was 51 561 (134.0/100 000). Most of them were caused by rotavirus: 33 789 (87.8/100 000). Number of cases of whooping cough reported in 2014 was 2 101 (5.5/100 000), it was a decrease of incidence as compared with the previous year by 3.7%. After the epidemic increase in cases of rubella in 2013. there has been a decline in the incidence of the disease by 84.7%. No single case of congenital rubella was reported. In 2014. it were reported 110 cases of measles (0.29 / 100 000). In 2014. Number of cases of invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae was 41, incidence: (0.11 / 100 000). This was an increase of 64.1%, as compared with the previous year. Among them, the number of sepsis cases increased by 150% from 10 to 25. None of these cases was fatal. The number of invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2014. amounted to 704. In comparison with 2013. This was an increase of 30.4%, but as compared with the median of the 2008-2012 period it was 91.9%. Among the cases of invasive S. pneumoniae infections 59 were fatal. The downward trend in the incidence of tuberculosis in total (all forms of TB) is clearly sustainable. In 2014. Incidence of this disease has decreased in comparison with the previous year from 18.8 / 100 000 to 17.4 and pulmonary tuberculosis from 17.8 to 16.4 / 100 000. In 2014. There were reported 1 157 cases of newly diagnosed HIV infections (3.01 / 100 000). And it was not a significant increase in the incidence of 4.5%, as compared with the previous year. The number of reported new AIDS cases decreased by 8.6%. In recent decades, there were no indiginus cases of malaria in Poland. Registered cases of malaria apply to persons who acquired it abroad in endemic areas. 19 such cases were reported in 2014. In 2014. there were no cases of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, rabies and viral haemorrhagic fevers with exception of dengue, of which 15 cases acquired in endemic areas were reported. Total number of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases in 2014 in Poland. was 2 169. The share of deaths from these causes in reference to the total number of deaths was 0.58%, and mortality due to infectious diseases was 5.6 per 100 000. Most deaths (24.6%) were caused by tuberculosis and its consequences.