Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- Is Diabetes a Risk Factor for a Severe Clinical Presentation of Dengue? - Review and Meta-analysis.
Htun NS, Odermatt P, Eze IC, et al. Is Diabetes a Risk Factor for a Severe Clinical Presentation of Dengue? - Review and Meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Apr; 9(4):e0003741.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe mean age of acute dengue has undergone a shift towards older ages. This fact points towards the relevance of assessing the influence of age-related comorbidities, such as diabetes, on the clinical presentation of dengue episodes. Identification of factors associated with a severe presentation is of high relevance, because timely treatment is the most important intervention to avert complications and death. This review summarizes and evaluates the published evidence on the association between diabetes and the risk of a severe clinical presentation of dengue.A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE database to access any relevant association between dengue and diabetes. Five case-control studies (4 hospital-based, 1 population-based) compared the prevalence of diabetes (self-reported or abstracted from medical records) of persons with dengue (acute or past; controls) and patients with severe clinical manifestations. All except one study were conducted before 2009 and all studies collected information towards WHO 1997 classification system. The reported odds ratios were formally summarized by random-effects meta-analyses. A diagnosis of diabetes was associated with an increased risk for a severe clinical presentation of dengue (OR 1.75; 95% CI: 1.08-2.84, p = 0.022).Large prospective studies that systematically and objectively obtain relevant signs and symptoms of dengue fever episodes as well as of hyperglycemia in the past, and at the time of dengue diagnosis, are needed to properly address the effect of diabetes on the clinical presentation of an acute dengue fever episode. The currently available epidemiological evidence is very limited and only suggestive. The increasing global prevalence of both dengue and diabetes justifies further studies. At this point, confirmation of dengue infection as early as possible in diabetes patients with fever if living in dengue endemic regions seems justified. The presence of this co-morbidity may warrant closer observation for glycemic control and adapted fluid management to diminish the risk for a severe clinical presentation of dengue.
- 5'-Silylated 3'-1,2,3-triazolyl thymidine analogues as inhibitors of West Nile virus and Dengue virus.
Vernekar SK, Qiu L, Zhang J, et al. 5'-Silylated 3'-1,2,3-triazolyl thymidine analogues as inhibitors of West Nile virus and Dengue virus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Med Chem 2015 Apr 24.AbstractPublisher Full TextWest Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue virus (DENV) are important human pathogens for which there are presently no vaccine or specific antivirals. We report herein a 5'-silylated nucleoside scaffold derived from 3'-azidothymidine (AZT) consistently and selectively inhibiting WNV and DENV at low micromolar concentrations. Further synthesis of various triazole bioisosteres demonstrated clear structure-activity-relationships (SARs) in which the antiviral activity against WNV and DENV hinges largely on both the 5'-silyl group and the substituent of 3'-triazole or its bioisosteres. Particularly interesting is the 5' silyl group which turns on the antiviral activity against WNV and DENV while abrogating the previously reported antiviral potency against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The antiviral activity was confirmed through a plaque assay where viral titer reduction was observed in the presence of selected compounds. Molecular modeling and competitive S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) binding assay suggest that these compounds likely confer antiviral activity via binding to methyltransferase (MTase).
- Antiviral activity of an N-allyl acridone against dengue virus.
Mazzucco MB, Talarico LB, Vatansever S, et al. Antiviral activity of an N-allyl acridone against dengue virus. [Journal Article]J Biomed Sci 2015; 22(1):29.AbstractPMC Free Full TextPublisher Full TextPublisher Full TextPublisher Full TextDengue virus (DENV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, is at present the most widespread causative agent of a human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite the increasing incidence of this pathogen, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines currently available for treatment or prevention. In a previous screening assay, we identified a group of N-allyl acridones as effective virus inhibitors. Here, the antiviral activity and mode of action targeted to viral RNA replication of one of the most active DENV-2 inhibitors was further characterized.The compound 10-allyl-7-chloro-9(10H)-acridone, designated 3b, was active to inhibit the in vitro infection of Vero cells with the four DENV serotypes, with effective concentration 50% (EC50) values in the range 12.5-27.1 μM, as determined by virus yield inhibition assays. The compound was also effective in human HeLa cells. No cytotoxicity was detected at 3b concentrations up to 1000 μM. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that virus entry into the host cell was not affected, whereas viral RNA synthesis was strongly inhibited, as quantified by real time RT-PCR. The addition of exogenous guanosine together with 3b rescued only partially the infectivity of DENV-2.The acridone derivative 3b selectively inhibits the infection of Vero cells with the four DENV serotypes without a direct interaction with the host cell or the virion but interfering specifically with the intracellular virus multiplication. The mode of antiviral action for this acridone apparently involves the cellular enzyme inosine-monophospahe dehydrogenase together with another still unidentified target related to DENV RNA synthesis.
- Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis.
Singh G, Prakash S Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015 Apr 25.AbstractPublisher Full TextAedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 °C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC90 and LC99 values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation.
- A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Estimation of Abundance and Spatial Density of Aedes aegypti.
Villela DA, Codeço CT, Figueiredo F, et al. A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Estimation of Abundance and Spatial Density of Aedes aegypti. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2015; 10(4):e0123794.AbstractPublisher Full TextStrategies to minimize dengue transmission commonly rely on vector control, which aims to maintain Ae. aegypti density below a theoretical threshold. Mosquito abundance is traditionally estimated from mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments, which lack proper analysis regarding accurate vector spatial distribution and population density. Recently proposed strategies to control vector-borne diseases involve replacing the susceptible wild population by genetically modified individuals' refractory to the infection by the pathogen. Accurate measurements of mosquito abundance in time and space are required to optimize the success of such interventions. In this paper, we present a hierarchical probabilistic model for the estimation of population abundance and spatial distribution from typical mosquito MRR experiments, with direct application to the planning of these new control strategies. We perform a Bayesian analysis using the model and data from two MRR experiments performed in a neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during both low- and high-dengue transmission seasons. The hierarchical model indicates that mosquito spatial distribution is clustered during the winter (0.99 mosquitoes/premise 95% CI: 0.80-1.23) and more homogeneous during the high abundance period (5.2 mosquitoes/premise 95% CI: 4.3-5.9). The hierarchical model also performed better than the commonly used Fisher-Ford's method, when using simulated data. The proposed model provides a formal treatment of the sources of uncertainty associated with the estimation of mosquito abundance imposed by the sampling design. Our approach is useful in strategies such as population suppression or the displacement of wild vector populations by refractory Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, since the invasion dynamics have been shown to follow threshold conditions dictated by mosquito abundance. The presence of spatially distributed abundance hotspots is also formally addressed under this modeling framework and its knowledge deemed crucial to predict the fate of transmission control strategies based on the replacement of vector populations.
- Dual miRNA Targeting Restricts Host Range and Attenuates Neurovirulence of Flaviviruses.
Tsetsarkin KA, Liu G, Kenney H, et al. Dual miRNA Targeting Restricts Host Range and Attenuates Neurovirulence of Flaviviruses. [Journal Article]PLoS Pathog 2015 Apr; 11(4):e1004852.Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are among the most significant arboviral pathogens worldwide. Vaccinations and mosquito population control programs remain the most reliable means for flavivirus disease prevention, and live attenuated viruses remain one of the most attractive flavivirus vaccine platforms. Some live attenuated viruses are capable of infecting principle mosquito vectors, as demonstrated in the laboratory, which in combination with their intrinsic genetic instability could potentially lead to a vaccine virus reversion back to wild-type in nature, followed by introduction and dissemination of potentially dangerous viral strains into new geographic locations. To mitigate this risk we developed a microRNA-targeting approach that selectively restricts replication of flavivirus in the mosquito host. Introduction of sequences complementary to a mosquito-specific mir-184 and mir-275 miRNAs individually or in combination into the 3'NCR and/or ORF region resulted in selective restriction of dengue type 4 virus (DEN4) replication in mosquito cell lines and adult Aedes mosquitos. Moreover a combined targeting of DEN4 genome with mosquito-specific and vertebrate CNS-specific mir-124 miRNA can silence viral replication in two evolutionally distant biological systems: mosquitoes and mouse brains. Thus, this approach can reinforce the safety of newly developed or existing vaccines for use in humans and could provide an additional level of biosafety for laboratories using viruses with altered pathogenic or transmissibility characteristics.
- Wolbachia Utilize Host Actin for Efficient Maternal Transmission in Drosophila melanogaster.
Newton IL, Savytskyy O, Sheehan KB Wolbachia Utilize Host Actin for Efficient Maternal Transmission in Drosophila melanogaster. [Journal Article]PLoS Pathog 2015 Apr; 11(4):e1004798.Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus and important human pathogens such as Dengue and Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within and transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic221/+ and chic1320/+) or villin (qua6-396/+) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results and cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, and number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies and chic221 heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype and conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission and maintenance within Drosophila.
- From Lab to Field: The Influence of Urban Landscapes on the Invasive Potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.
Dutra HL, Dos Santos LM, Caragata EP, et al. From Lab to Field: The Influence of Urban Landscapes on the Invasive Potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Apr; 9(4):e0003689.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is currently being trialled as a biocontrol agent in several countries to reduce dengue transmission. Wolbachia can invade and spread to infect all individuals within wild mosquito populations, but requires a high rate of maternal transmission, strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and low fitness costs in the host in order to do so. Additionally, extensive differences in climate, field-release protocols, urbanization level and human density amongst the sites where this bacterium has been deployed have limited comparison and analysis of Wolbachia's invasive potential.We examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential. We show that the wMel strain causes strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a high rate of maternal transmission and has no evident detrimental effect on host fecundity or fertility. Next, to understand the effects of different urban landscapes on the likelihood of mosquito survival, we performed mark-release-recapture experiments using Wolbachia-uninfected Brazilian mosquitoes in two areas of Rio de Janeiro where Wolbachia will be deployed in the future. We characterized the mosquito populations in relation to the socio-demographic conditions at these sites, and at three other future release areas. We then constructed mathematical models using both the laboratory and field data, and used these to describe the influence of urban environmental conditions on the likelihood that the Wolbachia infection frequency could reach 100% following mosquito release. We predict successful invasion at all five field sites, however the conditions by which this occurs vary greatly between sites, and are strongly influenced by the size of the local mosquito population.Through analysis of laboratory, field and mathematical data, we show that the wMel strain of Wolbachia possesses the characteristics required to spread effectively in different urban socio-demographic environments in Rio de Janeiro, including those where mosquito releases from the Eliminate Dengue Program will take place.
- Identification of sequence motifs involved in Dengue virus - Host interactions.
Asnet Mary J, Paramasivan R, Shenbagarathai R Identification of sequence motifs involved in Dengue virus - Host interactions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]J Biomol Struct Dyn 2015 Apr 23.:1-33.Dengue fever is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne virus infection, which remains a serious global public health problem. As there is no specific treatment or commercial vaccine available for effective control of the disease, the attempts on developing novel control strategies are underway. Viruses utilize the surface receptor proteins of host to enter into the cells. Though the number of proteins are claimed to be receptors of DENV using Virus Overlay Protein Binding Assays, the precise interaction between Dengue virus and host are not explored. Understanding the structural features of Domain III envelope glycoprotein would help in developing efficient antiviral inhibitors. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify the sequence motifs present in domain III envelope glycoprotein of DENV. DENV-1 and DENV-3 have a NGR motif at domain III envelope glycoproteins, which are reported to be bound with integrin receptor family. Similarly, DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-4 were found to contain Yxxphi motif which is a tyrosine based sorting signal responsible for the interaction with a mu subunit of adaptor protein complex High throughput virtual screening resulted in five compounds as lead molecules based on glide score, which ranges from -4.664 to -6.52 kcal/Mol. This computational prediction provides an additional tool for understanding the virus-host interactions and helps to identify potential targets in the host. Further, experimental evidence is warranted to confirm the virus-host interactions and also inhibitory activity of reported lead compounds.
- Effect of repeat human blood feeding on Wolbachia density and dengue virus infection in Aedes aegypti.
Amuzu HE, Simmons CP, McGraw EA Effect of repeat human blood feeding on Wolbachia density and dengue virus infection in Aedes aegypti. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Parasit Vectors 2015 Apr 24; 8(1):246.The introduction of the endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia into Aedes aegypti populations is a novel approach to reduce disease transmission. The presence of Wolbachia limits the ability of the mosquito to transmit dengue virus (DENV) and the strength of this effect appears to correlate with Wolbachia densities in the mosquito. There is also some evidence that Wolbachia densities may increase following the consumption of a bloodmeal. Here we have examined whether multiple blood feeds lead to increases in density or associated changes in Wolbachia-mediated blocking of DENV.The Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti mosquito line was used for the study. There were three treatment groups; a non-blood fed control, a second group fed once and a third group fed twice on human blood. All groups were orally infected with DENV-2 and then their midguts and salivary glands were dissected 10-11 days post infection. RNA/DNA was simultaneously extracted from each tissue and subsequently used for DENV RNA copies and Wolbachia density quantification respectively.We found variation between replicate vector competence experiments and no clear evidence that Wolbachia numbers increased in either the salivary glands or remainder of the body with feeding and hence saw no corresponding improvements in DENV blocking.Aedes aegypti are "sip" feeders returning often to obtain bloodmeals and hence it is important to assess whether repeat blood feeding improved the efficacy of Wolbachia-based DENV blocking. Our work suggests in the laboratory context when Wolbachia densities are high that repeat feeding does not improve blocking and hence this ability should likely be stable with respect to feeding cycle in the field.