Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.
D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Int Rev Immunol 2015 Nov 25.:1-32.AbstractPublisher Full TextA brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatitis C, dengue, respiratory-syncytial-virus, cytomegalovirus, multiresistant bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Ebola virus. In addition to search for innovative and effective vaccines and global infant coverage, even risk categories should adequately be protected. Despite patients under immunosuppressive therapy are globally increasing, their vaccine coverage is lower than recommended, even in developed and affluent countries.
- Role of skin homing T cells in acute dengue infection.
Malavige GN, Ogg GS Role of skin homing T cells in acute dengue infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Ann Transl Med 2015 Oct; 3(17):252.Publisher Full Text
- New insights into the immunopathology and control of dengue virus infection.
Screaton G, Mongkolsapaya J, Yacoub S, et al. New insights into the immunopathology and control of dengue virus infection. [Journal Article]Nat Rev Immunol 2015 Nov 25; 15(12):745-59.AbstractPublisher Full TextDengue virus poses a major threat to global public health: two-thirds of the world's population is now at risk from infection by this mosquito-borne virus. Dengue virus causes a range of diseases with a small proportion of infected patients developing severe plasma leakage that leads to dengue shock syndrome, organ impairment and bleeding. Infection with one of the four viral serotypes results in the development of homotypic immunity to that serotype. However, subsequent infection with a different serotype is associated with an increased risk of developing severe disease, which has led to the suggestion that severe disease is triggered by immunopathology. This Review outlines recent advances in the understanding of immunopathology, vaccine development and human monoclonal antibodies produced against dengue virus.
- A NEW POSSIBILITY FOR SURVEILLANCE: DO WE IDENTIFY ALL CASES OF LEPTOSPIROSIS?
Fontes RM, Cavalcanti LP, Oliveira AC, et al. A NEW POSSIBILITY FOR SURVEILLANCE: DO WE IDENTIFY ALL CASES OF LEPTOSPIROSIS? [Journal Article]Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2015 Oct; 57(5):443-6.AbstractPublisher Full TextLeptospirosis is a febrile disease with a typically underestimated global incidence, especially in regions where dengue is endemic. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately determine the number of leptospirosis cases in these areas, which contributes to significant under-reporting this disease. In this study, we estimated the number of possible leptospirosis cases among dengue-like cases that were reported during 2008, 2010, and 2012 in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil. Patients were evaluated for dengue and leptospirosis using immunoenzymatic tests for IgM antibodies that were specific to each pathogen. Among the suspected cases of dengue that resulted as negative in laboratory tests, 10.8% (2008), 19.2% (2010), and 30.8% (2012) were confirmed to be leptospirosis. Considering the cases reported by the surveillance authority as dengue that were subsequently discarded based on the laboratory test results, we estimate that the number of actual leptospirosis cases may be 26 to 49 times higher than those diagnosed and reported by the Health Services. Furthermore, we believe that approximately 20% of dengue-like cases may be leptospirosis cases in areas where the two diseases are endemic.
- A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.
Tan P, Lye DC, Yeo TK, et al. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2015.:17183.AbstractPublisher Full TextDengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p < 0.001; 227.7 μm vs 212.8 μm, p < 0.001; respectively), higher arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions (1.271 vs 1.249, p = 0.002; 1.268 vs. 1.230, p < 0.001, respectively), higher arteriolar and venular tortuosity (0.730 vs 0.546 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; 0.849 vs 0.658 [x10(4)], p < 0.001; respectively), compared to controls. Resolution of acute dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system.
- Dengue and other flavivirus infections.
Choumet V, Desprès P Dengue and other flavivirus infections. [Journal Article]Rev Sci Tech 2015 Aug; 34(2):473-8, 467-72.Flaviviruses are responsible for yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue, all of which are major human diseases found in tropical regions of the globe. They are zoonoses with a transmission cycle that involves primates as reservoirs and mosquitoes of the genus Aedes as vectors. The recent upsurge of urban epidemics of yellow fever, Zika fever and dengue has involved human-to-human transmission with mosquitoes as the vector. This paper is primarily concerned with dengue, which has become the pre-eminent arbovirosis in terms of public health.
- A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis.
Castro R, Pinzón HS, Alvis-Guzman N A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis. [Journal Article]Colomb Med (Cali) 2015; 46(3):135-43.AbstractPMC Free Full TextOur objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue.We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Articles were selected for review by title and abstract excluding letter, review, in vivo and in vitro studies, and duplicates studies. Selected articles were reviewed for study design, original purposes, sample size, main outcomes, methods, and oxidative-nitrosative stress markers values.In total, 4,331 non-duplicates articles were identified from electronic databases searches, of which 16 were eligible for full text searching. Data from the observational studies originate from Asian countries (50%; 8/16), South American countries (31.2%; 5/16), and Central America and the Caribbean countries (18.8%; 3/16). Case-control study was the type of design most common in researches reviewed. The 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification criteria were used in all studies included in this review.Based on published data found in peer-reviewed literature, oxidative and nitrosative stress are demonstrated by changes in plasma levels of nitric oxide, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation markers in patients with dengue infection. Additionally, elevated serum protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels appear to be associated with dengue disease severity.
- Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using long-range surface plasmon waveguides.
Wong WR, Sekaran SD, Mahamd Adikan FR, et al. Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using long-range surface plasmon waveguides. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Biosens Bioelectron 2015 Nov 12.:132-139.AbstractPublisher Full TextThe non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of the dengue virus circulates in infected patients' blood samples and can be used for early diagnosis of dengue infection. In this paper, we present the detection of naturally-occurring dengue NS1 antigen in infected patient blood plasma using straight long-range surface plasmon waveguides. Three commercially-available anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies were used for recognition and their performance was compared and discussed. A similar figure of merit to the one used in conventional dengue NS1 capture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to our results. In general, the positive patient samples can be clearly differentiated from the negative ones and the results agree with those obtained using ELISA. The largest signal-to-noise ratio observed during the experiments was 356 and the best detection limit observed is estimated as 5.73pg/mm(2).
- Postmortem Diagnosis of Dengue as an Epidemiological Surveillance Tool.
de Góes Cavalcanti LP, Braga D, Alexandre L, et al. Postmortem Diagnosis of Dengue as an Epidemiological Surveillance Tool. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Nov 23.AbstractPublisher Full TextDengue remains a problem in Brazil, and a substantial number of cases that progress to death are not diagnosed by health services. We evaluated the impact of a protocol adopted by the Coroner's Office Rocha Furtado (CO-RF) for the detection of unreported deaths from dengue in Brazil. We evaluated prospectively cases of deaths referred to the CO-RF with suspicion of dengue and those referred with other diagnosis in which the pathologists suspected dengue as the cause of death. Biological material was collected from all bodies autopsied, for which the suspected cause of death was dengue, between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 214 bodies autopsied, 134 (62.6%) tested positive for dengue; of these cases, 121 were classified as dengue according to the World Health Organization's case definition (1997 or 2009, as appropriate). Thus, CO-RF detected 90 deaths from dengue, which were not suspected during disease progression. This CO-RF protocol, through a combined effort of the surveillance and laboratory teams, increased the detection of fatal dengue cases by 5-fold. This is the largest series of autopsies performed in cases of death related to dengue in the world to date.
- The distinct distribution and phylogenetic characteristics of dengue virus serotypes/genotypes during the 2013 outbreak in Yunnan, China: Phylogenetic characteristics of 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China.
Wang B, Yang H, Feng Y, et al. The distinct distribution and phylogenetic characteristics of dengue virus serotypes/genotypes during the 2013 outbreak in Yunnan, China: Phylogenetic characteristics of 2013 dengue outbreak in Yunnan, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]Infect Genet Evol 2015 Oct 24.:1-7.AbstractPublisher Full TextSince 2000, sporadic imported cases of dengue fever were documented almost every year in Yunnan Province, China. Unexpectedly, a large-scale outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection occurred from August to December 2013, with 1538 documented cases. In the current study, 81 dengue-positive patient samples were collected from Xishuangbanna, the southernmost prefecture of the Yunnan province, and 23 from Dehong, the westernmost prefecture of the Yunnan province. The full-length envelope genes were amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine strains (39.1%) and 14 strains (60.9%) from the Dehong prefecture were classified as genotype I of DENV-1 and Asian I genotype of DENV-2, respectively. All strains from Xishuangbanna were identified as genotype II of DENV-3. Bayesian coalescent analysis indicates that the outbreak originated from bordering southeastern Asian countries. These three epidemic genotypes were predicted to originate in Thailand and then migrate into Yunnan through different routes.